“Ken Rinaldo’s Autopoiesis consists of fifteen robotic sound sculptures that modify their behaviour over time as a result of public interaction, exhibiting individual and collective agency. Using infrared sensors to detect human presence, the robots exchange information to modify their behaviour. They communicate with each other through a computer network and audible telephone tones….[..] “
“Autopoiesis utilizes a number of unique approaches to create this complex and evolving environment. It uses smart sensor organization that senses the presence of the viewer/participant and allows the robotic sculpture to respond intelligently. I have used smart sensor organization in past papers to describe the process of organizing the sensors in such a way that they can be minimized in number while maximizing the abilities of the software to cope with the data. This idea was also explored at the Fourth Neuromorphic Engineering workshop at the Telluride Summer Research Center where participants noted that just a few sensors can be used to create complex interaction if the sensors are properly organized. For example, at the top of each sculptural element (or arm) four passive infrared sensors face North, South, East and West. When two sensors are triggered, the program knows that someone is located in, for instance, the Southeast corner and this is the direction the sculpture moves to. Four sensors allow eight quadrants of sensing. These passive infrared sensors tell each arm to move in the direction of the viewer, while the active infrared sensor located at the tip stops the arm as it arrives within inches of the viewer. This allows the sculpture to display both attraction and repulsion behaviors.” 
: Edward A. Shanken, Art and Electronic Media, p.160
“In the interactive real-time environment “A-Volve” visitors
interact with virtual creatures in the space of a water filled glass pool.These
virtual creatures are products of evolutionary rules and influenced by
human creation and decision.
Designing any kind of shape and profile with their finger on a touch
screen, visitors will “bear” virtual three dimensional creatures,
that are automatically “alive” and swim in the real water of
the pool.The movement and behavior of the virtual creature is decided by
its form, how the viewer was designing it on the touch screen.
Behavior in space is, so to speak, an expression of form. Form is an
expression of adaptation to the environment.
Form and movement are closely connected, the creatures capability to
move will decide its fitness in the pool.The fittest creature will survive
longest and will be able to mate and reproduce. The creatures will compete
by trying to get as much energy as possible. Thus predator creatures will
hunt for prey creatures, trying to kill them.
The creatures also interact with the visitors, by reacting to their
hands movement in the water. If a visitor tries to catch a creature, it
will try to flee or stays still, if it gets caught. Thus the visitor is
able to influence the evolution by for example protection preys against
predators.If two strong creatures meet, they can create an offspring and
a new creature can be born. It carries the genetic code of its parents.
Mutation and cross-over provides a nature-like reproduction mechanism,
that follows the genetic rules of Mendel. This newly born offspring will
now also react and live in the pool, interacting with visitors and other
This video shows the interactive sound installations created by David Rokeby. About this sound installation David Rokbey said
“The first major interactive work I created is called «Very Nervous
System» and was started in 1982. I use video cameras, image processors,
computers, synthesizers and a sound system to create a space in which
the movements of one’s body create sound and/or music. The computer as
a medium is strongly biased and so my impulse while using the computer
was to work solidly against these biases. Because the computer is
purely logical, the language of interaction should strive to be
intuitive. Because the computer removes you from your body, the body
should be strongly engaged. Because the computer’s activity takes place
on the microscopic scale of silicon wafers, the encounter with the
computer should take place in human-scaled physical space. And because
the computer is objective and disinterested, the experience should be
The result is an interactive space in which the public uses their
bodies as the active element of the interface. Body movement is rich,
complex, and full of subtlety and ambiguity. Early computer art used
random number generators to provide variety and complexity. I replaced
the random number generator with the complexity of sentient human
“In this installation of Expanded Cinema and real time processes one of
the first video projectors was used in an artistic context, testifying
at the same time the early interest developed in invisible and
processual states of the body, in other words: in the image of the body
‹from the inside›. The artist developed their projection technique for
DIAS [Destruction in Art Symposium], where they realized a section of
their series, ‹Son et Lumière›, for three aspects of nature: one for
the elements—Earth, Air, Fire, and Water—one for Insects, Reptiles, and
Water creatures, and one for Bodily Fluids and Functions.
For the presentation of the latter part in Liverpool in 1966, Boyle
recounts this performance: «In the sperm sequence a couple wired up to
EDB (electro-cardiogram) and EEG (electroencephalogram) celebrated
intercours [hidden behind a screen], while the oscilloscopes of the ECG
and EEG were televised on closed circuit television and projected with
an Eidofor TV projector on to a large screen behind the couple. Thus,
their heartbeasts and brain waves were instantly revealed.” 
The “Tumbling Man” is a humanoid pneumatic robot that not only tumbles, but with the aid and cooperation of two participants can attain contorted poses,sit up, and play his body as a percussion instrument. The uncertain gestures of the robot possess a convincing anthropomorphic quality, creating empathy within the participant and viewer, as the robot appears to be like a new-born primitive.
The computer in the “Tumbling Man” chooses a certain set of limbs from each participant by which he will be controlled. In any given attempt, he may, for example, be controlled by the legs of one participant and the arms and neck of the other. This choice of which participant controls which limb of the “TumblingMan” changes over time requiring the participants to redefine their method of cooperation When there is no motion from the participants, as when they are donning the telemetry suits, the “Tumbling Man” creates his own unique actions based on the patterns of previous participants.
With this piece, we hope to eliminate the barrier between performer and audience. Audience members become performers, forced to cooperate with other, formerly passive, viewers. These new performers will interact with each other and the”Tumbling Man” on both a physical and emotional level The uncertainty of who controls what, creates the need for cooperation, in order to produce control.
In 1992, MacMurtrie received a grant from the NEA to present this collection of work in a single, coherent performance: The Robotic Opera. Mounted in collaboration with composer, Bruce Darby, hardware and software engineers, Rick Sayre and Phillip Robertson, performers Mark Steiger and Hanna Sims, and performance artist, Nao Bustamante, ARW set out to build several additional musical robots to interact with a score as called for by the operatic genre.
“The Robotic Chair”in the short film Robotic Chair by Peter Lynch. Raffaello D’Andrea, an associate professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at Cornell University, has created a chair in conjunction with Canadian artist Max Dean that can crumple itself into a disjointed pile of wood and then reassemble itself. Dean came up with the vision and D’Andrea, who advises the university’s robot teams, designed it. Another Canadian artist and a former student of D’Andrea’s then helped them build it.
“It has no utilitarian value,” D’Andrea said in a prepared statement. “It is an art piece.”
The chair contains 14 motors, two gearboxes and other parts. Algorithms help the parts that can move on the robot find its missing parts.
The Robotic Chair seat houses a custom robot charged with the ambitious task of locating the scattered parts (legs and back), reassembling itself, then restoring itself to its former chair status. The chair acts autonomously guided by an overhead vision system and is not dependent on viewer presence or interaction to perform. The Robotic Chair is a collaborative project by artist Max Dean, professor/entrepreneur Raffaello D’Andrea and artist/industrial designer Matt Donovan
“Uncle Roy All Around You is a game played online in a virtual city and on the streets of an actual city. Online Players and Street Players collaborate to find Uncle Roy’s office before being invited to make a year long commitment to a total stranger.The city is an arena where the unfamiliar flourishes, where the disjointed and the disrupted are constantly threatening to overwhelm us. It is also a zone of possibility; new encounters.Building on Can You See Me Now? the game investigates some of the social changes brought about by ubiquitous mobile devices, persistent access to a network and location aware technologies.”
“A handheld device that displays a map and can send and receive messages is given to the street players. Once outside, a message from Uncle Roy requests that they meet him in the park by the lake, which has been marked on the handheld map. Online players can help street players find their way by sending private messages. Eventually, street players are directed to Uncle Roy’s office and online players are invited to join them in a virtual office. “
“Michael Joaquin Grey’s work possesses a conceptual grandeur that draws together the complexity of genetic theory, the prospect of artificial life, and the awesome beauty of nature. His art explores the transitions between various states of energy, matter and meaning. The sculptor highlights the recapitulation of such phenomena in divergent forms and functions, while questioning the processes by which those forms and functions gain scientific or aesthetic significance.”
“In 1990 Grey and collaborator Randolph Huff created the sculpture, Gametes, which is related to the third structural principle.”
“Inside two one-inch laser-cured resin cubes connected by a slender rod, the artists used computer-controlled stereolithography to inscribe a series of cubes in spheres for some twenty-three iterations – a cube in a sphere in a cube in a sphere, and so on twenty three times – resulting in an iterative, 3-D, mandala-like structure. The surface on top of the cubes is marked by peaks and valleys generated by genetic algorithms, suggesting that microcosmic tectonic plates have been shifted as a result of the mystical seismic activity within. The artist says of his work, ‘the liberty to create and perpetuate both thoughts and life is a double-edged sword, a practice which is deeply and beautifully subjective and human. It is this awareness of the ontogeny of a process that can illuminate how simple formal or objective decisions over several generations or iterations can lead to complex problems which are not innocent of social meaning or responsibility.'”
“Stelarc has challenged the physical limits of the human body with respect to technology. Perhaps best-known for his controversial suspension performances, begun in 1976, in which he suspends his body (which he invariably refers to as ‘the body’) by cables attached to meat-hooks inserted in his flesh, Stelarc has used electronic media in his artwork since the mid-1970s. Indeed, these two aspects of his practice are integrally related to his theories on the body’s obsolescence.” book, page.39
‘Pinging,’ a computer networking term for a signal sent by one computer to determine the presence of another, is made corporeal in Stelarc’s Ping Body. A remote audience could access, view and actuate the body of the artist via the Internet. As illustrated in the schematic diagram below, a website provided an interface to a computer-based muscle-stimulation system that permitted those logged on to ‘ping’ various limbs with an electric signal, causing involuntary movements in the artist’s body. This resulted in a haunting dance that recalled Balinese shadow puppets, made all the more dark by the loud electronic music generated live from network data. While the artist’s body became a robot controlled by the Internet, Stelarc retained control of the robotic third arm, introducing multiple levels of control and communication in the system. By directly connecting the body to the Internet, it was also subject to the random ‘pinging’ that takes place when URLs are constantly queried by webcrawlers to determine their location and strength of signal. The body itself becomes the object of inspection in the network, rather than the subject that surfs the Web. By exposing and inverting a commonplace practice of the Internet, Stelarc demonstrates, in a highly visceral form, the physicality of online media an d the relationship between embodiment and disembodiment in computer networks. 
Technology for ordering drugs online is much more effective than this development.
 Edward A. Shanken, Art and Electronic Media, 2009, p. 155.
Autopoiesis is an artificial life robotic series of fifteen musical and robotic sculptures that interact with the public and modify their behaviors based on the both the presences of the participants in the exhibition and the communication between each separate sculpture.
This series of robotic sculptures talk with each other through a hardwired network and audible telephone tones, which are a musical language for the group.
“Autopoiesis, is a robotic sculpture installation commissioned by the
Kiasma Museum in Helsinki, Finland as part of Outoaly,
the Alien Intelligence Exhibition curated by Erkki Huhtamo, 2000.
It consists of fifteen robotic sound sculptures that interact with the
public and modify their behaviors over time. These behaviors change based
on feedback from infrared sensors, the presence of the participant/viewers
in the exhibition and the communication between each separate sculpture.
This series of robotic sculptures talk with each other through a computer
network and audible telephone tones, which are a musical language for
the group. Autopoiesis is “self making”, a characteristic of all living
systems which was defined and refined by Francisco Varella and Humberto
Maturana. The interactivity engages the viewer/participant who in turn,
effects the system’s evolution and emergence. This creates a system evolution
as well as an overall group sculptural aesthetic. Autopoiesis breaks out
of standard interfaces (mouse) and playback methodologies (CRT) and presents
an interactive environment, which is immersive, detailed and able to evolve
in real time by utilizing feedback and interaction from audience/participant
Autopoiesis utilizes a number of unique approaches to create this complex
and evolving environment. It uses smart sensor organization that senses
the presence of the viewer/participant and allows the robotic sculpture
to respond intelligently. I have used smart sensor organization in past
papers to describe the process of organizing the sensors in such a way
that they can be minimized in number while maximizing the abilities of
the software to cope with the data. This idea was also explored at the
Fourth Neuromorphic Engineering workshop at the Telluride Summer Research
Center where participants noted that just a few sensors can be used to
create complex interaction if the sensors are properly organized. For
example, at the top of each sculptural element (or arm) four passive infrared
sensors face North, South, East and West. When two sensors are triggered,
the program knows that someone is located in, for instance, the Southeast
corner and this is the direction the sculpture moves to. Four sensors
allow eight quadrants of sensing. These passive infrared sensors tell
each arm to move in the direction of the viewer, while the active infrared
sensor located at the tip stops the arm as it arrives within inches of
the viewer. This allows the sculpture to display both attraction and repulsion
ROBERTA BREITMORE was, for 9 years, a private performance of a simulated person. In an era or alternatives, she became an objectified alternative personality. Roberta’s first live action was to place an ad in a local newspaper advertising for a roommate. People who answered the ad became participants in her adventure. As she became part of their reality, they became part of her fiction.
A fuller description about Roberta can be found at at the artist’s website:
The simulation of Roberta breaks the borders between real life and simulation. After so many years Roberta became more and more a second personality of Lynn Hershman. Roberta’s traumas became the haunting memories of Lynn Hershman. Roberta began to take control of a real person. At this time the experiment began to run out of control. Roberta became enacted by multiple indivduals, not just Hershman, resulting in multiples of the multiple.
MEART is an installation distributed between two (or more) locations in the world. Its “brain” consists of cultured nerve cells that grow and live in a neuro-engineering lab, in Georgia institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA (Dr. Steve Potter’s lab). Its “body” is a robotic drawing arm that is capable of producing two-dimensional drawings. The “brain” and the “body” will communicate in real time with each other for the duration of the exhibition.
MEART is assembled from:
‘Wetware’ – neurons from embryonic rat cortex grown over a Multi Electrode Array.
‘Hardware’ – the robotic drawing arm
‘Software’ – that interfaces between the wetware and the hardware.
The Internet is used to mediate between its components and overcome its geographical detachment.
MEART is suggesting future scenarios where humans will create/grow/manufacture intuitive and creative “thinking entities” that could be intelligent and unpredictable beings. They may be created by humans for anthropocentric use, but as they will be creative and unpredictable they might not necessarily stay the way they were originally intended.
We refer to the wetware/software/hardware hybrid we have created as a Semi-Living artist as it is made of both living and artificial components; part grown – part constructed. While the artistic values of the outcomes of the process (the marks on paper left by the drawing arm) are still in the eye of the beholder, the questions regarding the possibilities are real. What will happen when such a system starts to express qualities that are considered uniquely human aptitudes such as art? Its identity extends beyond our cultural comprehension of living systems. Made from living biological matter, mechanics and electronics simultaneously, it questions the viewer’s perceptions of the concept of sentience.
MEART has a technologically created identity. It is an identity created as aresult of the progression and combination of various technologies. Its“brain” is growing in Atlanta and its “body” (or multi bodies) could be anywhere in the world thus highlighting the ubiquitous nature of its existence and identity.
This work explores questions such as: What is creativity? What creates value in art? One way of looking at these issues might be by thinking about creativity along a spectrum, from a reductionist mechanical device, to an artistic genius. What is it that makes a person a genius? Perhaps it is the ability to link together diverse inputs. We hope that our cultured neurons will have the potential to show signs of very basic “learning” or “creativity”.
MEART has the ability to sense the outside world through a camera that acts as its eyes. It has the ability to process what it sees through the neurons that act as its brain. It has the ability to react accordingly through the robotic drawing arm that acts as its body. The Internet functions as its nervous system. MEART is a geographically detached entity ubiquitous on many levels.
We have set up living neural cultures (“MEART’s Brain”) in Dr. Steve Potter’s lab at Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta. Potter is one of the leading neuroscientists in the field of “Learning in Vitro” and is developing a new paradigm for neurobiology research. He is applying different technologies to study dissociated cultures of hundreds or thousands of mammalian neurons.
Experiments are performed in order to explore the relationships between the input/stimulation to the neuronal culture and the output/drawings.
Thispiece traces its influences from an array of artistic, scientific and technological streams. Areas such as interactive art, cybernetics, kinetic and robotic art, artificial life/intelligence and biology are all linked to the project. Other influences are the different representations and use of animals in contemporary arts, from the use of elephants to produce “art” to the use of living and recently living animals/bodies (or parts of the body) as art works.
From an historical context, artists have always been concerned with imitating life and with giving life/animating qualities to non-living entities. Technology has also joined forces with art forms to create more sophisticated types of artificial life systems and “intelligent” machines. The uniqueness of MEART is the attempt to create an intelligent artificial/biological artist that has in itself the capability or potential to be creative. We are focusing on creating the artist rather than the artwork. MEART proposes to embody the fusion of biology and the machine – creativity emerging from a semi-living entity.
‘ornamental bug garden is a screen based computational art work.
Peering through the square window of ornamental bug garden 001(obg001) viewers see a population of spring objects attempt to space themselves evenly across the floor. Many are forced onto wires, the arrangement of which encourages their assent until they are either ejected by a falling weight or reach the top where their only option is to jump. On their decent they collide with flowers and bubbles before ending back on the floor, causing all their comrades to shuffle around From this point the cycle begins again. In the work the sensation or illusion of life is our key interest rather than a desire to create life itself. We are fascinated how simple rules can be combined to create systems that exhibit complex behaviour. The sound that is output from the system carries the signature of emergence.’ 
In Epizoo (1995), Catalonian artist Marcel.Lí Antúnez Roca explores the complex layers of control and authority with respect to the cyborgian body and electronic systems. By activating motorized devices, viewers manipulated Roca’s nose, mouth, ears, glutea and pectoral muscles, causing bizarre contortions. Like the unwitting subjects in psychologist Stanley Milgram’s 1974 study Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View (sixty-five percent of those tested agreed to mete out the maximum punishment of 450 volts, several ticks beyond the indication, ‘DANGER: SEVERE SHOCK’), so the audience of Epizoo was confronted with taking responsibility for its actions and the effects they caused on the performer, who was at their mercy.
In the tradition of Yoko Ono’s Cut Piece (1966, far left) and Marina Abramovic’s Rhythm 0 (1974, left), the artist submitted his body to the whims of the audience.
The videos of Epizoo below shows how the work explores the relationship between human body and technology, where the audience can interact with human body by punishing or pleasuring it. There are many external devices attached to the artist´s body so that the user can control them. The individual part of the body will react according to the user's input.
"The Epizoo performance enables the spectator to control Marcel.Lís body by means of a mechatronic system. This system comprises a body robot, which is an exoskeleton worn by the performer, a computer, a mechanical body control device, a vertical projection screen, two vertical lighting rigs and sound equipment.
"The orthopaedic robot mechanism is held to the body by two metal moulds, a belt and a helmet, into which the pneumatic mechanisms are fitted. These mechanisms can move Roca's nose, buttocks, pectorals, mouth and ears while the artist remains standing upright on a rotating circular platform during the performance. The pneumatic devices are in turn connected to a system of computer controlled electro valves and relays. An exclusive application with an interface similar to a videogame is run by the computer. Its eleven interactive scenes include several computer generated animated sequences that recreate the figure of the artist and indicate the position and movement of the mechanisms. In this way the user can control the lighting, images and sound as well as the artist's body by using the mouse."  Sergi Jordá composed the music and was responsible for the computer design.
An interesting summary of Stelarc’s most influencial works presented in the form of a short documentary, augmented by comments of Stelarc himself. The film also gives an idea of his approach to the body and his works in general, as well as his perspective on the future.
‘RealSnailMail is a research project developed by Vicky Isley and Paul Smith (aka boredomresearch) at the National Centre for Computer Animation, Bournemouth University. The worlds first messaging service to use real snails http://www.realsnailmail.net harnesses the potential of diminutive molluscs to deliver email messages. Your message travels at the speed of light to our collection point where it waits….. and waits for a RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) equipped snail to pass by. Once collected your message is lugged around on the back of a snail until such time as it happens by the dispatch point and is finally forwarded to its recipient.’ 
‘RealSnailMail was premiered at SIGGRAPH2008 in the Slow Art Exhibition, Hybrid Section at the Los Angeles Conventions Center (11th-15th August 2008).’ 
“Karl Sims’Genetic Images uses genetic algorithms to generate visual images that are subjected to ‘aesthetic selection’ by the audience, resulting in a form of interactive, artificial evolution.”
It is “a media installation in which visitors can interactively “evolve” abstract still images. A supercomputer generates and displays 16 images on an arc of screens. Visitors stand on sensors in front of the most aesthetically pleasing images to select which ones will survive and reproduce to make the next generation”.
 Edward.A Shanken, Art and Eelectronic Media,p.151
“Alba”, the green fluorescent bunny, is an albino rabbit. This means that, since she has no skin pigment, under ordinary environmental conditions she is completely white with pink eyes. Alba is not green all the time. She only glows when illuminated with the correct light. When (and only when) illuminated with blue light (maximum excitation at 488 nm), she glows with a bright green light (maximum emission at 509 nm). She was created with EGFP, an enhanced version (i.e., a synthetic mutation) of the original wild-type green fluorescent gene found in the jellyfish Aequorea Victoria. EGFP gives about two orders of magnitude greater fluorescence in mammalian cells (including human cells) than the original jellyfish gene.
The first phase of the “GFP Bunny” project was completed in February 2000 with the birth of “Alba” in Jouy-en-Josas, France. This was accomplished with the invaluable assistance of zoosystemician Louis Bec and scientists Louis-Marie Houdebine and Patrick Prunet. Alba’s name was chosen by consensus between my wife Ruth, my daughter Miriam, and myself. The second phase is the ongoing debate, which started with the first public announcement of Alba’s birth, in the context of the Planet Work conference, in San Francisco, on May 14, 2000. “
This shows results from Karl Sims’ ”Evolved Virtual Creatures project”, which involving simulated Darwinian evolutions of virtual block creatures.
“A population of several hundred creatures is created within a supercomputer, and each creature is tested for their ability to perform a given task, such the ability to swim in a simulated water environment. The successful survive, and their virtual genes containing coded instructions for their growth, are copied, combined, and mutated to make offspring for a new population. The new creatures are again tested, and some may be improvements on their parents. As this cycle of variation and selection continues, creatures with more and more successful behaviors can emerge.”
“In ‘Petit Mal’ the media artist Simon Penny has created an interactive robot that doesn’t have a useful function per se. This charming machine appears to be the diametric opposite of a hi-tech robot: it moves around light-footedly on the two wheels of a bicycle. Penny is interested in the emotional aspects of our relationship with machines, and in the cultural effects of research and development in the field of ‘artificial life’. ‘Petit mal’ is a term borrowed from neuropsychology, and stands for a momentary loss of control. In a subtle way, this criticises the control paradigm and social application of computer technology, in that visitors to the exhibition are confronted with an elaborate machine entity that appears, like a young animal, to desire nothing more than harmless and playful contact. Petit Mal was conceived in 1989. Building and development occurred 1992-95. The robot was damaged during exhibition in Sheffield in 1998. In summer 2005 work began on resurrecting it for transmediale 2006.”
Charlotte Moorman talks about how she met her long time artistic partner Nam June Paik. The details of the establishment and presentation of the 1964 premier performance of Stockhausen’s “Originale” in New Yok is described in very funny detail. She tells about George Maciunas (Fluxus) picketing the performance. Filmed in 1980 under a grant from the National Endowment for the arts. It is an excerpt from the work Charlotte Morman and the New York Avant Garde.
Three self-portraits, each possessing an animal, vegetable, or mineral mind, debate the nature of violence with each other, and discuss their fears – generally their fears about each other. They also wonder about “that thing” before them, and we hear how they project their own interior worlds onto it in an attempt to figure out what it really is. Although they hear each other, nothing seems to penetrate or influence their ideas; no matter what the subject matter discussed, they eventually return to their own interests and fixed ideas.
This work is a “cinematic sculpture”. The dialog is not pre-recorded, and is different each time someone visits it, generated in real time by a computer program. The conversations that these figures carry on are neither completely scripted, nor are they random; rather, the software gives each a “personality”, a vocabulary, associative habits, obsessions, and other quirks of personality which allow them to behave as if in a scene of film, acting out their role over and over, but always changing.
TV Bra For Living Sculpture (1969) is a crucial work within Nam June Paik’s career. Consisting of two miniature televisions attached to a set of vinyl straps so that the screens functioned as the cups of a woman’s bra, this sculpture was designed to be worn by Paik’s collaborator Charlotte Moorman as she performed on the cello. An object which conflates the use value of technology with the exchange value of fashion, Paik saw his TV Bra as a way of humanizing the technological by forcing it into a hybrid relationship with the body as well as other artistic media such as performance. Originally, when this work was used in performances, the sound played by Moorman on her cello was filtered through a processor which would change, modulate, disrupt, and regenerate the live television images playing on the video screens of her TV Bra. By conflating sexuality (Moorman performed clothed only by the TV Bra), performance art, corporate entertainment media (the live signal on the two televisions), classical music, and sculpture, Paik used this technology to subvert the numbing effects of the electronic age that McLuhan alluded to. As Paik suggested in a 1965 essay, “if Pasteur and Robespierre are right that we can resist poison only through certain built-in poison, then some specific frustrations caused by cybernated life, require accordingly cybernated shock and catharsis. My everyday work with video tape and the cathode-ray tube convinces me of this.” In Understanding Media McLuhan suggested the possibility of a similar moment of resistance within the technological realm which he located at the moment when two different media come together to form a hybrid. As he put it:
“The hybrid or the meeting of two media is a moment of truth and revelation from which new form is born. For the parallel between two media holds us on the frontiers between forms that snap us out of the Narcissus-narcosis. The moment of the meeting of media is a moment of freedom and release from the ordinary trance and numbness imposed by them on our senses.”
TV Bra For Living Sculpture raises a number of relevant questions about the notion of hybridity as we move down the path towards the possibilities of a Y2K apocalypse or a coming virtual nirvana. The object itself, a piece of technology meant to be worn during a musical performance, was itself a radical hybrid in the sense that McLuhan was suggesting. As a work of art it was rigorously intermedial, combining performance, sculpture, and video within the context of an art gallery structure traditionally focused on painting and sculpture. As a pioneering work of video sculpture that transgressed the various traditional boundaries of art, but also the boundaries of conventional science and engineering, Paik and Moorman’s TV Bra For Living Sculpture provides an important historical antecedent and antidote to the numbing, ahistorical hysteria that often swirls around the explosion of the digital revolution.
“Two identical heads, sculpted in the likeness of an imaginary androgynous figure, speak to each other, doubting the reality of their own existence. These two, in ever-changing and outrageous conversations with each other struggle to determine if they really exist or not, if they are the same person or not, and if they will ever know. Ken Feingold wanted them to look like replacement parts being shipped from the factory that had suddenly gotten up and begun a kind of existential dialogue right there on the assembly line. Their conversations are generated in real time, utilizing speech recognition, natural language processing, conversation/personality algorithms, and text-to-speech software. They draw visitors into their endless, twisting debate over whether this self-awareness and the seemingly illusory nature of their own existence can ever be really understood.” 
The Senster, commissioned by Philips, for their permanent showplace, the Evoluon, in Eindhoven. In addition to responding to people’s voices, the Senster also responded to their movements, which it detected using a radar, and was probably the first robotic sculpture to be controlled by a computer. It was unveiled in 1970 and remained on permanent show until 1974 when it was dismantled.
Its size – it was over 15 feet (4 m) long and could reach as high into the air – made the use of aluminium castings inappropriate, so it was welded out of steel tubing, with the castings employed only in the more intricate microphone positioning mechanism. The microphones would locate the direction of any predominant sound and home in on it, and the rest of the structure would follow them in stages if the sound persisted. Sudden movements or loud noises would make it shy away. The complicated acoustics of the hall and the completely unpredictable behaviour of the public made the Senster’s movements seem a lot more sophisticated than they actually were. It soon became obvious that it was that behaviour and not anything in its appearance which was responsble for the impact which the Senster undoubtedly had on the audience.
This video gives a visual impact of the artwork that appears in the book. And also implifies the work published in the following artical.
“In the interactive real-time environment “A-Volve” visitors interact with virtual creatures in the space of a water filled glass pool.These virtual creatures are products of evolutionary rules and influenced by human creation and decision.
Designing any kind of shape and profile with their finger on a touch screen, visitors will “bear” virtual three dimensional creatures, that are automatically “alive” and swim in the real water of the pool.The movement and behavior of the virtual creature is decided by its form, how the viewer was designing it on the touch screen.
Behavior in space is, so to speak, an expression of form. Form is an expression of adaptation to the environment.
Form and movement are closely connected, the creatures capability to move will decide its fitness in the pool.The fittest creature will survive longest and will be able to mate and reproduce. The creatures will compete by trying to get as much energy as possible. Thus predator creatures will hunt for prey creatures, trying to kill them.
The creatures also interact with the visitors, by reacting to their hands movement in the water. If a visitor tries to catch a creature, it will try to flee or stays still, if it gets caught. Thus the visitor is able to influence the evolution by for example protection preys against predators.If two strong creatures meet, they can create an offspring and a new creature can be born. It carries the genetic code of its parents. Mutation and cross-over provides a nature-like reproduction mechanism, that follows the genetic rules of Mendel. This newly born offspring will now also react and live in the pool, interacting with visitors and other creatures.”
This artical was published in 1997 Complexity Journam, New York: Wiley, Vol 2, No. 6.pp.13-21
“A-Volve” is an interactive environment where visitors can interact in real time with artificial creatures living in the space of a water-filled glass pool. The virtual creatures are created by the visitors of the installation but can also evolve by themselves. Combat, fitness, energy level, speed of movement, reproduction and life span decide the fate of the creatures in the virtual pool. They can transmit their genetic code from generation to generation to create an evolveable environment. “A-Volve” is an artistic interactive computer installation that implements artificial life, genetics, evolution as well as unencumbered interaction within virtual space. It has been exhibited worldwide and has received several awards for Interactive Art and Multimedia. Its intention is to allow visitors to interact with an artificial world of evolving creatures, as part of Sommerer and Mignonneau’s artistic concept of “Art as a Living System,” where human design and interaction decisions are linked to the evolution and development of non-linear, multi-layered virtual worlds.